MEMORY SCREENING OVERVIEW
It has been estimated that between 50 and 80 percent of older adults in the United States report memory complaints (see Levy-Cushman & Abeles, 1998; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999), the causes of which may range from normal, age-related memory declines, to a diversity of medical disorders and medication side effects, to conditions such as anxiety and depression, and, in some cases, to the early stages of a dementia (e.g., Alzheimer's Disease). Unfortunately, many individuals with memory concerns do not obtain detailed memory screenings due to such factors as a lack of available professional services in their communities, cost of services or limited financial resources, social stigmas or embarrassment, hectic work and family schedules, and/or fear or nervousness.
CogniCheck Online Memory Screenings are designed to provide individuals between 45 and 86 years of age with a readily accessible and affordable means to screen aspects of their verbal and visual memory processes online, and in the privacy and comfort of their homes or offices. The types of memory processes that are assessed in these screenings are similar to ones that are commonly evaluated by licensed neuropsychologists in clinical practice.
MEMORY SCREENINGS TESTS
Each CogniCheck Online Memory Screening consists of three different memory screenings tests, known collectively as the Computer Reliant Evaluative and Web Screening (CREWS) Tests of Neuropsychological Functioning. These memory screenings tests were developed by university-affiliated, licensed clinical neuropsychologists with extensive experience in the neuropsychological assessment/ screening of persons presenting with memory complaints (see "Professional Credentials" for an overview of the authors' qualifications).
The CREWS Tests of Neuropsychological Functioning have been standardized, normed, and scientifically evaluated in samples of individuals between 45 and 86 years of age who lived in the United States (see "Psychometric Properties" for an overview). While these memory screenings may prove beneficial in identifying memory problems (or within normal limits performances), they are intended to be utilized only as screening tools and for informational purposes, and they are not designed, or intended, in any way to be conclusive or to provide definitive diagnoses, recommendations, and/or treatments, nor are they designed to be utilized as substitutes for comprehensive evaluations, recommendations, and/or treatments, by licensed health care professionals, or intended to be used in any litigation or other legal proceedings.
CogniCheck offers both "full" and "short" versions of its online memory screenings. The "full" version, which is the website's most comprehensive memory screening, is designed to assess aspects of both immediate and delayed verbal and visual memory processes, whereas the "short" version primarily screens immediate memory processes. While individuals are encouraged to complete the "full" version, which may aid in the identification of both immediate and delayed memory impairments that might otherwise go undetected, the "short" version may prove beneficial to persons who are experiencing time constraints or prefer a briefer screening of their immediate memory processes.
A description of each CREWS Test of Neuropsychological Functioning is provided below:
CREWS Test of Verbal Learning:
This test is designed to screen aspects of your verbal memory processes, and, in particular, your immediate recall, delayed recall,* and delayed recognition* of words. It will involve the presentation of lists of words over successive trials that you will be asked to remember immediately after each presentation and again, after both short and more extended* delays.
CREWS Test of Facial Memory:
This test is designed to screen aspects of your visual memory processes and, in particular, your immediate and delayed* recognition of unfamiliar human faces. It will involve the presentation of an initial set of "stimulus" faces that you will be asked to recognize/remember immediately following this presentation and again, after a delay.*
CREWS Test of Digit Recall:
This test is designed to screen additional aspects of your verbal memory processes and attentional/concentrational abilities, and, in particular, your abilities to remember series of digits/numbers. The test is composed of the following two parts:
Forward Digits Recall - involves the presentation of series of numbers that you will be asked to recall in the exact same order that they are presented to you.
Reverse Digits Recall - will again involve the presentation of series of numbers; however, during this part, you will be asked to recall the numbers in the exact reverse (backwards) order that they are presented to you.
MEMORY SCREENING RESULTS
Upon completion of all memory screening tests and payment transaction, your performances on each task will be computed automatically and compared to the performances/scores of the reference sample of cognitively intact individuals (of similar ages) on which the screening tests were normed. A report that provides an interpretative summary of your memory screening results will be generated and made available to you should you desire to print and retain a copy. Please see the "Psychometric Properties" page for additional information regarding the reference sample(s) and screening test norms, as well as the "Sample Screening Results" page which illustrates the first sections of a CogniCheck.com memory screening report containing "sample" results.
TIME and AGE REQUIREMENTS
The "full" version of the memory screening, from start to finish, typically takes 50 to 60 minutes to complete, while the "short" version requires approximately 30 minutes.
CogniCheck's Online Memory Screenings and the CREWS Tests of Neuropsychological Functioning are designed specifically for individuals between 45 and 86 years of age. Completion of these screening tests by persons who fall outside of this age range may result in inaccurate interpretations of their performances as reference/normative data do not exist at present for such groups. However, the screening performances of individuals under 45 or over 86 years of age who voluntarily elect to complete a memory screening will be compared to the performances of the reference group that lies closest to their age.
PRIVACY and SECURITY
CogniCheck.com recognizes the importance that visitors to its website place on their privacy and security. For privacy purposes, during the memory screening testing phases and in the final report, you will be identified by your self-selected user name and password. Furthermore, for security purposes, all information that you provide to complete your payment transaction at the conclusion of your memory screening will be transmitted over a secure connection. For further information regarding your privacy and use of this site, please review the "Privacy" and "Terms and Conditions" statements.
To contain costs and make CogniCheck's Online Memory Screenings readily affordable, the cost of each "full" memory screening is only $14.99, while the "short" version is only $9.99. Both memory screening versions are payable by major credit and debit cards. Your payment information will only be requested at the conclusion of your memory screening.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
To obtain additional information about CogniCheck's Online Memory Screenings, please review the "Frequently Asked Questions" page.
BEGINNING THE MEMORY SCREENING PROCESS
Prior to beginning the actual memory screening, you will be asked to read an Informed Consent and Release Form, provide registration information, download the screening tests, and review a list of instructions and tips on maximizing your memory screening performances. Only upon completion of all immediate recall and recognition portions of your memory screening will you be asked to select your preferred version ("full" or "short") of the screening.
To begin the memory screening process, please click on "Begin" below: